Volume 2, Issue 1 (Spring (Covid-19) 2020)                   Tour Res 2020, 2(1): 29-47 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Beishami B, Asadi Amir T, Salehi S. A Study of Post- Corona Ecological Reconstruction Strategies, Case study: Mazandaran Rural Areas. Tour Res. 2020; 2 (1) :29-47
URL: http://tr.richt.ir/article-7-493-en.html
1- Associate Professor, Tourism Research Center of RICHT, Tehran, Iran. bbeishami@yahoo.com , bbeishami@yahoo.com
2- PhD student in Tourism, University of Algarve, Portugal, Faro, Portugal
3- Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Mazandaran University, Sari, Iran
Abstract:   (2182 Views)
The emergence and prevalence of COVID-19 affected all tourism activities, including ecotourism. What has prevailed so far in the literature of this field of study is indeed, the study of ecotourism development in order to reduce the negative effects of COVID-19 and to start the development measures. However, the relatively long cessation of ecotourism activities in the country raised the question of how to resume ecotourism activities in the post- COVID-19 era.
In this regard, the present study seeks to answer the questions in the fields of ecotourism activities, the effects of the coronavirus and the strategies for rehabilitation of ecotourism in the post- COVID-19 period.
The statistical population of the study consists of ecotourism areas in the east of Mazandaran, and the purposeful sampling method was used to select the samples. A qualitative interview method was used for data collection, in which a number of eco-lodge owners were interviewed. The results showed that:
 (1) Beneficiaries did not see the need to complete recession of ecotourism resorts and believed that the operation and use of ecotourism was possible due to observing natural social distance by observing minimum health protocols;
 (2) The health safety of ecotourism resorts is the same as staying at home;
 (3) At least a three-year period is required to return to the normal situation, since the peak return period is not expected in the near future;
 (4) The re-creation of ecotourism activities requires the establishment of a strong regional organization such as the East Mazandaran Ecotourism Corporation, in order to establish a constructive interaction with the government;
 (5) Providing financial facilities for the newly established ecotourism, so that it can resume ecotourism activities.
While other studies have used secondary data at the national and macro levels to examine COVID-19's effects on economic indicators, the present study uses primary data and field study findings to analyze original personal experiences of the economic impact of COVID-19 on ecotourism at the local community level.
Full-Text [PDF 614 kb]   (486 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Research Article | Subject: Planning
Received: 2020/10/21 | Accepted: 2020/11/30 | Published: 2020/12/10

1. Akbari, A., Gharakhloo, M. (1389). Ecotourism: A New concept in Urban Geography. Tehran: Entekhab Publication.
2. Anup, C., Kedar, R., & Ramesh, S. (2015). Role of ecotourism in environmental conservation and socioeconomic development in Annapurna conservation area. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 22(3), 251-8. [DOI:10.1080/13504509.2015.1005721]
3. Azkia, M., Rashidi, A. & Partazian, K. (1390). Qualitative Methods: From Theory to Practice, Vol. 2. Tehran: Keyhan Publication.
4. Dram, A., Alan M. (1387). Introduction to Planning and Ecotourism, Translated by Mohsen Ranjbar. Tehran: Entekhab Publication.
5. Gupta, N, Tomar, A, Kumar, V. (2020). The effect of COVID-19 lockdown on the air environment in India, Global Journal of Environmental Sciences Management. 6(SI), 31-40.
6. Hariri, N. (1385). Principle and Qualitative Methods. Tehran: Islamic AzaD University.
7. Havenegard, C. (1994). Ecotourism, The Journal of Tourism studies. 15.
8. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/06/why-rural-hospitals-may-not-survive-coronavirus.access date: 08/06/2020. [DOI:10.1055/s-0040-1721631]
9. https://www.pm.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/covid-safe-australia-roadmap.pdf.accees date: 09/06/2020.
10. International Labour Organization. (2020). COVID-19 and the tourism sector. Etrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/sector/Resources/publications/WCMS_741468/lang--en/index.htm.
11. Interview with Baman Aghaee, key informant and activit in Sperz Ecotourism in Kaali village, Savadkoo Township, Interviewer: Tahmineh Aadi Amiri, 10-May, 2020.
12. Interview with Darzi, Mohammad, Acitivist in Minci Ecotourism in Naft Chaal Village, North Savaad Kooh, Interviewer: Tahminej Asadi Amiri, 23-May-2020.
13. Interview with Graoosian, Yahya, Key Informant and Tooba Ecotourism Activisit in Kadir Village, Noshar Township, Interviewer: Tahminej Asadi Amiri, 11-May-2020.
14. Interview with Hor Mansoori, Key informant and environmental activist in the village of Zeevan and Mian Kaleh region, Neka Township, Interviewer: Tahmineh Asad Amiri, Sadegh Salehi, 6-May,2020, 2020.
15. Interview with Hossein beygi, Ali, Activist in Cham & Chasht Ectourism in Porseh Village, Tonekabon Township, Interviewer: Tahmineh Asadi Amiri, 10-May, 2020.
16. Interview with Kaleejm Activst in Padarood ecotourism in Garma Post village, Noshahr Town ship, Interviewer: Tahmineh Asadi amiri, 16-May,2020, 2020.
17. Interview with Khajehan, Amir, Masso Ecotourism Activist in Islam Abad Village, Nooshar Township, Interviewer: Tahminej Asadi Amiri, 13-May-2020.
18. Interview with Khayyernia, Ali, Key Informant and Vannosheh Ecotourism Activist in Yakhkesh Village, Behshar Township, Interviewer: Tahminej Asadi Amiri, 13-May-2020.
19. Interview with Masoomeh vahedi, key Informant and activist in ecotourism of Roojeen in the vllage of Safarian, Hezarjarib, Neka Township, Interviewer: Tahmineh Asadi Amiri, Sadegh Salehi, 6-May,2020, 2020.
20. Interview with Mehrzad Khalatbari, Key informant and activist in ecotourism in Jannan Roodbar village, Ramsar Township, Interviewer: Tahmineh Asadi amiri, 16-May,2020, 2020.
21. Interview with Mohammad Javad Rahmani Khalili, Key informant nd activist in ecotourism in Khalin Shahr, Behshar Township, Interviewer: Tahmineh Asadi Amiri, Sadegh Salehi, 6-May, 2020.
22. Interview with Najjar Karimi, Activist in Zarbeen Ecotourism in Saroos Village, Noshahr Township, Interviewer: Tahmineh Asadi amiri, 16-May,2020, 2020.
23. Interview with Saadati, Mohammad, Key Informant and Sort Ecotourism Activist in Malkhast Village, Sari Township, Interviewer: Tahminej Asadi Amiri, 23-May-2020.
24. Interview with Salehani, Jamal, Key Informant and Saraye Mirza Ecotourism Activist in Salehan Village, Noshahr Township, Interviewer: Tahminej Asadi Amiri, 03-May-2020.
25. Marthan, H. (1991). Ecotourism and sustainable Development: who owns paradise? Washington D.C: Island press.
26. Mazandaran Governorship. (2016). The Report of Socio- Cultural & Economic Development in Mazandaran. Sari: Mazandaran Local Government.
27. Mazandaran Organization of Budget and Planning. (1395). The Census of Mazandaran. Sari: Office of the Census.
28. Maznadarn Organizatio of Cultural Heritage, Handicraft & Tourism. (1389). The Report of Ecotourism State in Mazandarn. Sari: Office of Tourism.
29. Midmore, P. (2000). The economic value of walking in rural wales. Ramblers, Association in Wales. Wrexham wale.
30. Mohammadpoor, A. (1390). Qualitative Method, Anti Method and Plan in Qualitative Methodology. Tehran: Jamehshenasan Publication.
31. Natural Geography. (2020). why rural hospitals may not survive coronavirus,
32. Nepal, S. K. (2002). Mountain Ecotourism: Global Perspective on challenges and opportunities. Northern British Cloumbia: University of Northern British Cloumbia.
33. Neth, B. (2008). Ecotourism as a Tool for Sustainable Rural Community Development and Natural Resources Management in the Tunel Sap Biosphre Reserve. Kassel: Kassel University Press.
34. Organization of Cultural Heritage, Handicraft &Tourism. (1389). The Report of the Committee of Travel Facilitation. Tehran: Office of Tourism.
35. Owe, F. (1378). Introduction to Qualitatie Research, Translated by H. Jalili. Tehran: Ney Publication.
36. Potter, J. D. (2009). Ecoturism in Thailand's Andaman cost: An assessment of modes, localities and mediators, A master thesis. Singapor: National Univerty of Singapor.
37. Prime Minister of Australian. (2020). Road Map of Covid Safe,
38. Salehi, S. (1389). Analysis of Ecotourism in Tourism Development in Mazandaran Rural Areas. Sari: Mazandaran Organization of Cultural Heritage, Handicraft & Tourism.
39. Samson L., Vineeth V., Constantin M., & Siying L. (2020). How efficient are the lockdown measures taken formitigating the COVID-19 epidemic?
40. Sharma, A., Paudel, G. T., Shrestha, K., & Tripathi, S. (2018). Ecotourism in Gaurishankar Conservation Area: Source of Income, Satisfaction and Perception of Local People. Internationa Journal of Tourism, 4, 8-13.
41. Snyman, S. (2016). The role of private sector ecotourism in local socio-economic development in southern Africa. Journal of Ecotourism, 247-68. [DOI:10.1080/14724049.2016.1226318]
42. Somekh, B., Lewin, C. (2005). Research Methods in the Social Sciences. London: Sage.
43. Strauss, A., Korbin, J. (1392). Introduction to Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedure of Generating Grounded Theory, Translated by Ebrahim Afshar. Tehran: Nay Publication.
44. The Europen Parliament. (2020). Coronavirus and future plan. Retrieved from https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/ATAG/2020/649368/EPRS_ATA(2020)649368_EN.pdf
45. The World Travel & Tourism Council (2020). Tourism Sector Globally. Retrieved from https://wttc.org
46. The World Tourism Organization. (2020). Coronavirus and touris industry,
47. United Nation Environment Program. (2020). what-COVID-19 -means-ecotourism. Retrieved from https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/what-COVID-19 -means-ecotourism.
48. United Nation World Tourism Organization. (2020). Impact assessment of the COVID-19 outbreak. Retrieved from https://www.unwto.org/impact-assessment-of-the-COVID-19 -outbreak-on-international-tourism
49. Weaver, D. B., Lawton, J. L. (2007). Twenty years on: The state of contemporary ecotourism research. Tourism Management, 28, 1168-1179. [DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2007.03.004]
50. Yadav, D. Maheshwari, H. Chandra.U, (2020). Outbreak prediction of COVID-19 in most susceptible countries. Global Journal of Tourism Management. 6(SI): 1-20.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.